Zobrazujú sa príspevky z dátumu 2018

Orbital mechanics - Orbitálna mechanika

Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft. The motion of these objects is usually calculated from Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation. It is a core discipline within space mission design and control. Celestial mechanics treats more broadly the orbital dynamics of systems under the influence of gravity, including both spacecraft and natural astronomical bodies such as star systems, planets, moons and comets. Orbital mechanics focuses on spacecraft trajectories, including orbital maneuvers, orbit plane changes, and interplanetary transfers, and is used by mission planners to predict the results of propulsive maneuvers. General relativity is a more exact theory than Newton's laws for calculating orbits, and is sometimes necessary for greater accuracy or in high-gravity situations (such as orbits close to the Sun)…

Psyche (space probe)

Psyche is a planned orbiter mission that will explore the origin of planetary cores by studying the metallic asteroid 16 Psyche.Lindy Elkins-Tanton of Arizona State University is the Principal Investigator who proposed this mission for NASA's Discovery Program. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) will manage the project. 16 Psyche is the heaviest known M-type asteroid, and is thought to be the exposed iron core of a protoplanet. This asteroidmay be the remnant of a violent collision with another object that stripped off the outer crust. Radar observations of the asteroid from Earth indicate an iron–nickel composition. On January 4, 2017, the Psyche mission was chosen along with the Lucymission as NASA's next Discovery-class missions.

Lucy (space probe)

Lucy: The First Mission to Jupiter’s Trojans
Lucy's orbital path


Mission typePlanetary scienceOperatorESA· durationPlanned: 7 yearsSpacecraft propertiesManufacturerAirbus·ISASLaunch mass4,100 kg (9,040 lb)[1]BOL massMPO: 1,230 kg (2,710 lb)[1]
Mio: 255 kg (560 lb)[1]Dry mass2,700 kg (5,950 lb)[1]DimensionsMPO: 2.4 × 2.2 × 1.7 m

Gravity assist - Gravitačný manéver

Gravitačný manéver v kozmonautike a nebeskej mechanike znamená využitie preletu sondy gravitačným poľom planéty alebo iného astronomického objektu na zmenu rýchlosti a smeru umelého kozmického telesa.

Pri prelete za planétou (sonda prekríži obežnú dráhu planéty po prelete planéty) ide o urýchlenie sondy - gravitačné zrýchlenie,
pri prelete pred planétu (sonda prekríži obežnú dráhu planéty pred preletom planéty) o brzdenie sondy - gravitačné brzdenie,
pri prelete pod alebo nad planétou ide o zmenu sklonu dráhy.

Gravitačné zrýchlenie (prelet za planétou) sa používa väčšinou na let k vonkajším planétam a iným telesám Slnečnej sústavy za obežnou dráhou Zeme. Šetrí sa tak palivo, alebo realizujú lety, ktoré by boli bez nich nemožné.

Gravitačné brzdenie (prelet pred planétou) sa používa väčšinou na let k vnútorným planétam.

Gravitačný manéver okolo planéty mení rýchlosť sondy voči Slnku, ale zachováva jej rýchlosť voči planéte samotnej, v súlade so zákonom zachovania energie.


Wikipedia Hayabusa2Hayabusa2 na slovenskej wikipedii Mission typeAsteroid sample returnOperatorJAXACOSPAR ID2014-076ASATCAT propertiesManufacturerNEC[1]Launch mass609 kg (1,343 lb)Dimensions1 × 1.6 × 1.25 m (3.3 × 5.2 × 4.1 ft) (spacecraft core), 6 m × 4.23 m (19.7 ft × 13.9 ft) (solar panel)Power2.6 kW (at 1 au), 1.4 kW (at 1.4 au)Start of missionLaunch date3 December 2014, 04:22 UTC[2]RocketH-IIA 202Launch siteLA-YTanegashima Space CenterEnd of missionLanding dateDecember 2020 (planned)Landing siteWoomera, AustraliaFlyby of EarthClosest approach3 December 2015Distance3,090 km (1,920 mi)[3](162173) Ryugu orbiterOrbital insertionJune 27, 2018, 09:35 UTC[4]Orbital departureDecember 2019 (planned) ← Hayabusa